WHO. COVID-19 Status Report https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports (accessed 21 December 2020).
Andersen, K. G., Rambaut, A., Lipkin, W. I., Holmes, E. C. & Garry, R. F. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat. Med. 26, 450–452 (2020).
Zhou, P. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579, 270–273 (2020). This key virology paper details the isolation and characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the current outbreak of COVID-19 and a closely related bat CoV.
Calisher, C. H., Childs, J. E., Field, H. E., Holmes, K. V. & Schountz, T. Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19, 531–545 (2006). The first comprehensive review on bats as a unique reservoir source of emerging viruses, which provides a summary that remains highly cited and relevant to this day.
Smith, I. & Wang, L. F. Bats and their virome: an important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans. Curr. Opin. Virol. 3, 84–91 (2013).
Wang, L. F. & Anderson, D. E. Viruses in bats and potential spillover to animals and humans. Curr. Opin. Virol. 34, 79–89 (2019).
Enright, J. B., Sadler, W. W., Moulton, J. E. & Constantine, D. Isolation of rabies virus from an insectivorous bat (Tadarida mexicana) in California. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 89, 94–96 (1955).
Goldstein, T. et al. The discovery of Bombali virus adds further support for bats as hosts of ebolaviruses. Nat. Microbiol. 3, 1084–1089 (2018).
Mollentze, N. & Streicker, D. G. Viral zoonotic risk is homogenous among taxonomic orders of mammalian and avian reservoir hosts. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 9423–9430 (2020).
Simmons, N. B. & Cirranello, A. L. Bat Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Database https://batnames.org/ (accessed 12 August 2020).
Upham, N. et al. Mammal Diversity Database version 1.2 https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4139818 (2020).
Nowak, R. M. & Walker, E. P. Walker’s Bats of the World (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1994).
Jones, K. E. (ed.) in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences https://doi.org/10.1038/npg.els.0004129 (Wiley, 2006).
Voigt, C. C. & Kingston, T. Bats in the Anthropocene (Springer International, 2015).
Kunz, T. H. Ecology of Bats (Springer US, 1982).
Geiser, F. & Stawski, C. Hibernation and torpor in tropical and subtropical bats in relation to energetics, extinctions, and the evolution of endothermy. Integr. Comp. Biol. 51, 337–348 (2011).
Jones, G. & Holderied, M. W. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 274, 905–912 (2007).
Springer, M. S., Teeling, E. C., Madsen, O., Stanhope, M. J. & de Jong, W. W. Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 6241–6246 (2001).
Wang, Y., Pan, Y., Parsons, S., Walker, M. & Zhang, S. Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 274, 2901–2905 (2007).
Alexander, R. M. The merits and implications of travel by swimming, flight and running for animals of different sizes. Integr. Comp. Biol. 42, 1060–1064 (2002).
Thomas, S. P. Metabolism during flight in two species of bats, Phyllostomus hastatus and Pteropus gouldii. J. Exp. Biol. 63, 273–293 (1975).
Voigt, C. C. & Speakman, J. R. Nectar-feeding bats fuel their high metabolism directly with exogenous carbohydrates. Funct. Ecol. 21, 913–921 (2007).
Kelm, D. H., Simon, R., Kuhlow, D., Voigt, C. C. & Ristow, M. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 278, 3490–3496 (2011).
O’Mara, M. T. et al. Cyclic bouts of extreme bradycardia counteract the high metabolism of frugivorous bats. eLife 6, e26686 (2017).
Muijres, F. T. et al. Leading-edge vortex improves lift in slow-flying bats. Science 319, 1250–1253 (2008).
Austad, S. N. & Fischer, K. E. Mammalian aging, metabolism, and ecology: evidence from the bats and marsupials. J. Gerontol. 46, B47–B53 (1991).
Podlutsky, A. J., Khritankov, A. M., Ovodov, N. D. & Austad, S. N. A new field record for bat longevity. J. Gerontol. A 60, 1366–1368 (2005).
Austad, S. N. Methusaleh’s Zoo: how nature provides us with clues for extending human health span. J. Comp. Pathol. 142, S10–S21 (2010).
Wilkinson, G. S. & South, J. M. Life history, ecology and longevity in bats. Aging Cell 1, 124–131 (2002).
Metchnikoff, E., Weinberg, M., Pozerski, E., Distaso, A. & Berthelot, A. Rousettes et microbes. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 23, 61 (1909).
ICTV. Virus Taxonomy https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy (accessed 21 May 2020).
Lau, S. K. et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14040–14045 (2005). A highly cited paper in the field that revealed bats as the natural reservoir of SARS-related coronaviruses, which opened up an era of research into bats and coronaviruses.
Ge, X. Y. et al. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 503, 535–538 (2013).The product of ten years of intensive research, this study confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV in bats and their potential to infect humans, which is of contemporary relevance for the current pursuit of the origins of SARS-CoV-2.
Li, W. et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310, 676–679 (2005).
Poon, L. L. et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in bats. J. Virol. 79, 2001–2009 (2005).
Banerjee, A., Kulcsar, K., Misra, V., Frieman, M. & Mossman, K. Bats and coronaviruses. Viruses 11, 41 (2019).
Woo, P. C. Y., Lau, S. K. P., Li, K. S. M., Tsang, A. K. L. & Yuen, K. Y. Genetic relatedness of the novel human group C betacoronavirus to Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 1, e35 (2012).
Cui, J., Li, F. & Shi, Z. L. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 17, 181–192 (2019).
Fan, Y., Zhao, K., Shi, Z. L. & Zhou, P. Bat coronaviruses in China. Viruses 11, 210 (2019).
Hu, B. et al. Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog. 13, e1006698 (2017).
Zhou, H. et al. A novel bat coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV-2 contains natural insertions at the S1/S2 cleavage site of the spike protein. Curr. Biol. 30, 2196–2203.e3 (2020).
Cheng, V. C., Lau, S. K., Woo, P. C. & Yuen, K. Y. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 660–694 (2007).
Latinne, A. et al. Origin and cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses in China. Nat. Commun. 11, 4235 (2020).
Cima, G. Pandemic prevention program ending after 10 years. JAVMAnews https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2020-01-15/pandemic-prevention-program-ending-after-10-years (2 January 2020).
Wadman, M. & Cohen, J. NIH’s axing of bat coronavirus grant a ‘horrible precedent’ and might break rules, critics say. Science https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc5616 (30 April 2020).
Murray, K. et al. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268, 94–97 (1995).
Chua, K. B. et al. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 288, 1432–1435 (2000).
Zhou, P. et al. Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin. Nature 556, 255–258 (2018).
Huang, Y. W. et al. Origin, evolution, and genotyping of emergent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains in the United States. MBio 4, e00737-13 (2013).
Oreshkova, N. et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. EuroSurveill. 25, 2001005 (2020).
Abdel-Moneim, A. S. & Abdelwhab, E. M. Evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection of animal hosts. Pathogens 9, 529 (2020).
Sit, T. H. C. et al. Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2. Nature 586, 776–778 (2020).
Newman, A. et al. First reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in companion animals – New York, March–April 2020. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 69, 710–713 (2020).
Gillespie, T. R. & Leendertz, F. H. COVID-19: protect great apes during human pandemics. Nature 579, 497 (2020).
Olival, K. J. et al. Possibility for reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to free-ranging wildlife: a case study of bats. PLoS Pathog. 16, e1008758 (2020).
Xiao, Y. et al. Pathological changes in masked palm civets experimentally infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. J. Comp. Pathol. 138, 171–179 (2008).
Lam, T. T. et al. Identifying SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature 583, 282–285 (2020).
Xiao, K. et al. Isolation of SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus from Malayan pangolins. Nature 583, 286–289 (2020).
Cogswell-Hawkinson, A. et al. Tacaribe virus causes fatal infection of an ostensible reservoir host, the Jamaican fruit bat. J. Virol. 86, 5791–5799 (2012).
Freuling, C. et al. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a. J. Gen. Virol. 90, 2493–2502 (2009).
Negredo, A. et al. Discovery of an ebolavirus-like filovirus in Europe. PLoS Pathog. 7, e1002304 (2011).
Frick, W. F., Puechmaille, S. J. & Willis, C. K. R. in Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World (eds Voigt, C. & Kingston, T.) 245–262 (Springer, 2015).
Luis, A. D. et al. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 280, 20122753 (2013).
Brook, C. E. & Dobson, A. P. Bats as ‘special’ reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Trends Microbiol. 23, 172–180 (2015).
Olival, K. J. et al. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals. Nature 546, 646–650 (2017). A landmark study that used host traits (such as environmental factors, host taxonomy and human presence within the range of a host species) to demonstrate that—out of all mammalian orders—bats contain the largest proportion of zoonotic viruses.
Wang, L.-F., Walker, P. J. & Poon, L. L. Mass extinctions, biodiversity and mitochondrial function: are bats ‘special’ as reservoirs for emerging viruses? Curr. Opin. Virol. 1, 649–657 (2011).
Plowright, R. K. et al. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 282, 20142124 (2015). A comprehensive review that discusses a variety of ecological drivers of zoonotic spillover and potential risk factors.
Han, H. J. et al. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases. Virus Res. 205, 1–6 (2015).
Bouma, H. R., Carey, H. V. & Kroese, F. G. Hibernation: the immune system at rest? J. Leukoc. Biol. 88, 619–624 (2010).
O’Shea, T. J. et al. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20, 741–745 (2014).
Miller, M. R. et al. Broad and temperature independent replication potential of filoviruses on cells derived from Old and New World bat species. J. Infect. Dis. 214, S297–S302 (2016).
Ahn, M. et al. Dampened NLRP3-mediated inflammation in bats and implications for a special viral reservoir host. Nat. Microbiol. 4, 789–799 (2019). A functional study that demonstrates lowered activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome sensor in bats with a reduced response to both ‘sterile’ and zoonotic viral infection, mechanistically identifying dampened transcriptional priming, a novel splice variant and functional activity of bat NLRP3.
Pavlovich, S. S. et al. The Egyptian rousette genome reveals unexpected features of bat antiviral immunity. Cell 173, 1098–1110 (2018).An important bat genomics paper that reveals potential mechanisms of host tolerance.
Hayman, D. T. S. Bat tolerance to viral infections. Nat. Microbiol. 4, 728–729 (2019).
Cameron, M. J., Bermejo-Martin, J. F., Danesh, A., Muller, M. P. & Kelvin, D. J. Human immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Virus Res. 133, 13–19 (2008).
Liu, X. et al. Transcriptomic signatures differentiate survival from fatal outcomes in humans infected with Ebola virus. Genome Biol. 18, 4 (2017).
Totura, A. L. & Baric, R. S. SARS coronavirus pathogenesis: host innate immune responses and viral antagonism of interferon. Curr. Opin. Virol. 2, 264–275 (2012).
Zampieri, C. A., Sullivan, N. J. & Nabel, G. J. Immunopathology of highly virulent pathogens: insights from Ebola virus. Nat. Immunol. 8, 1159–1164 (2007).
Swanepoel, R. et al. Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2, 321–325 (1996).
Watanabe, S. et al. Bat coronaviruses and experimental infection of bats, the Philippines. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16, 1217–1223 (2010).
Munster, V. J. et al. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis). Sci. Rep. 6, 21878 (2016).
Middleton, D. J. et al. Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid bats (Pteropus poliocephalus). J. Comp. Pathol. 136, 266–272 (2007).
Zhang, G. et al. Comparative analysis of bat genomes provides insight into the evolution of flight and immunity. Science 339, 456–460 (2013). The first comparative bat genomics study, which revealed various highly selected, missing or altered genes that have diverse roles in the mammalian DNA damage, innate immune and oxidative phosphorylation pathways and opened up various avenues for further discoveries in bats.
Glennon, N. B., Jabado, O., Lo, M. K. & Shaw, M. L. Transcriptome profiling of the virus-induced innate immune response in Pteropus vampyrus and its attenuation by Nipah virus interferon antagonist functions. J. Virol. 89, 7550–7566 (2015).
Wynne, J. W. et al. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics reveals Hendra virus sensitizes bat cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Genome Biol. 15, 532 (2014).
Papenfuss, A. T. et al. The immune gene repertoire of an important viral reservoir, the Australian black flying fox. BMC Genomics 13, 261 (2012).
Xie, J. et al. Dampened STING-dependent interferon activation in bats. Cell Host Microbe 23, 297–301 (2018). An important experimental study that showed reduced signalling by the intracellular sensor, STING, of bats, owing to a replacement—across all bat species—of a serine residue (S358) that is highly conserved in other mammals; this replacement results in the loss of interferon production and antiviral activity.
De La Cruz-Rivera, P. C. et al. The IFN response in bats displays distinctive IFN-stimulated gene expression kinetics with atypical RNASEL induction. J. Immunol. 200, 209–217 (2018).
Zhou, P. et al. Contraction of the type I IFN locus and unusual constitutive expression of IFN-α in bats. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 2696–2701 (2016).
Zhang, Q. et al. IFNAR2-dependent gene expression profile induced by IFN-α in Pteropus alecto bat cells and impact of IFNAR2 knockout on virus infection. PLoS ONE 12, e0182866 (2017).
McNab, F., Mayer-Barber, K., Sher, A., Wack, A. & O’Garra, A. Type I interferons in infectious disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 15, 87–103 (2015).
Shaw, A. E. et al. Fundamental properties of the mammalian innate immune system revealed by multispecies comparison of type I interferon responses. PLoS Biol. 15, e2004086 (2017).
Hölzer, M. et al. Virus- and interferon alpha-induced transcriptomes of cells from the microbat Myotis daubentonii. iScience 19, 647–661 (2019).
Zhou, P. et al. IRF7 in the Australian black flying fox, Pteropus alecto: evidence for a unique expression pattern and functional conservation. PLoS ONE 9, e103875 (2014).
Banerjee, A. et al. Positive selection of a serine residue in bat IRF3 confers enhanced antiviral protection. iScience 23, 100958 (2020).
Fuchs, J. et al. Evolution and antiviral specificities of interferon-induced Mx proteins of bats against Ebola, influenza, and other RNA viruses. J. Virol. 91, e00361-17 (2017).
Hayward, J. A. et al. Differential evolution of antiretroviral restriction factors in pteropid bats as revealed by APOBEC3 gene complexity. Mol. Biol. Evol. 35, 1626–1637 (2018).
Banerjee, A. et al. Novel insights into immune systems of bats. Front. Immunol. 11, 26 (2020).
Subudhi, S., Rapin, N. & Misra, V. Immune system modulation and viral persistence in bats: understanding viral spillover. Viruses 11, 192 (2019).
Secombes, C. J. & Zou, J. Evolution of interferons and interferon receptors. Front. Immunol. 8, 209 (2017).
Malireddi, R. K. & Kanneganti, T. D. Role of type I interferons in inflammasome activation, cell death, and disease during microbial infection. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 3, 77 (2013).
Huang, C. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 395, 497–506 (2020).
Tay, M. Z., Poh, C. M., Rénia, L., MacAry, P. A. & Ng, L. F. P. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 20, 363–374 (2020).
Laing, E. D. et al. Enhanced autophagy contributes to reduced viral infection in black flying fox cells. Viruses 11, 260 (2019).
Kuballa, P., Nolte, W. M., Castoreno, A. B. & Xavier, R. J. Autophagy and the immune system. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 30, 611–646 (2012).
Phillips, A. M. et al. Host proteostasis modulates influenza evolution. eLife 6, e28652 (2017).
Reyes-del Valle, J., Chávez-Salinas, S., Medina, F. & Del Angel, R. M. Heat shock protein 90 and heat shock protein 70 are components of dengue virus receptor complex in human cells. J. Virol. 79, 4557–4567 (2005).
Srivastava, P. Roles of heat-shock proteins in innate and adaptive immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2, 185–194 (2002).
Beere, H. M. et al. Heat-shock protein 70 inhibits apoptosis by preventing recruitment of procaspase-9 to the Apaf-1 apoptosome. Nat. Cell Biol. 2, 469–475 (2000).
Singh, R. et al. Heat-shock protein 70 genes and human longevity: a view from Denmark. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1067, 301–308 (2006).
Shen, Y. Y. et al. Adaptive evolution of energy metabolism genes and the origin of flight in bats. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 8666–8671 (2010).
Koh, J. et al. ABCB1 protects bat cells from DNA damage induced by genotoxic compounds. Nat. Commun. 10, 2820 (2019).
Brunet-Rossinni, A. K. Reduced free-radical production and extreme longevity in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) versus two non-flying mammals. Mech. Ageing Dev. 125, 11–20 (2004).
Ungvari, Z. et al. Oxidative stress in vascular senescence: lessons from successfully aging species. Front. Biosci. 13, 5056–5070 (2008).
Vyssokikh, M. Y. et al. Mild depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane is a crucial component of an anti-aging program. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 6491–6501 (2020).
Chattopadhyay, B., Garg, K. M., Ray, R., Mendenhall, I. H. & Rheindt, F. E. Novel de novo genome of Cynopterus brachyotis reveals evolutionarily abrupt shifts in gene family composition across fruit bats. Genome Biol. Evol. 12, 259–272 (2020).
Hawkins, J. A. et al. A metaanalysis of bat phylogenetics and positive selection based on genomes and transcriptomes from 18 species. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 11351–11360 (2019).
Takeuchi, O. & Akira, S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 140, 805–820 (2010).
Iwasaki, A. A virological view of innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 66, 177–196 (2012).
Barber, G. N. STING: infection, inflammation and cancer. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 15, 760–770 (2015).
Li, N. et al. Influenza infection induces host DNA damage and dynamic DNA damage responses during tissue regeneration. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 72, 2973–2988 (2015).
Lupfer, C., Malik, A. & Kanneganti, T. D. Inflammasome control of viral infection. Curr. Opin. Virol. 12, 38–46 (2015).
Chen, I. Y., Moriyama, M., Chang, M. F. & Ichinohe, T. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus viroporin 3a activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Front. Microbiol. 10, 50 (2019).
Nieto-Torres, J. L. et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology 485, 330–339 (2015).
Yaqinuddin, A. & Kashir, J. Novel therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury: targeting a potential IL-1β/neutrophil extracellular traps feedback loop. Med. Hypotheses 143, 109906 (2020).
Freeman, T. L. & Swartz, T. H. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in severe COVID-19. Front. Immunol. 11, 1518 (2020).
Ahn, M., Cui, J., Irving, A. T. & Wang, L. F. Unique loss of the PYHIN gene family in bats amongst mammals: implications for inflammasome sensing. Sci. Rep. 6, 21722 (2016).
Schattgen, S. A. & Fitzgerald, K. A. The PYHIN protein family as mediators of host defenses. Immunol. Rev. 243, 109–118 (2011).
Lamkanfi, M. & Dixit, V. M. Mechanisms and functions of inflammasomes. Cell 157, 1013–1022 (2014). A key review paper in the field of inflammasome biology.
Wang, K. et al. Structural mechanism for GSDMD targeting by autoprocessed caspases in pyroptosis. Cell 180, 941–955 (2020).
Goh, G. et al. Complementary regulation of caspase-1 and IL-1β reveals additional mechanisms of dampened inflammation in bats. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 28939–28949 (2020).
Banerjee, A., Rapin, N., Bollinger, T. & Misra, V. Lack of inflammatory gene expression in bats: a unique role for a transcription repressor. Sci. Rep. 7, 2232 (2017).
Yong, K. S. M. et al. Bat–mouse bone marrow chimera: a novel animal model for dissecting the uniqueness of the bat immune system. Sci. Rep. 8, 4726 (2018).
Escalera-Zamudio, M. et al. The evolution of bat nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors. Mol. Ecol. 24, 5899–5909 (2015).
Mozzi, A. et al. OASes and STING: adaptive evolution in concert. Genome Biol. Evol. 7, 1016–1032 (2015).
Lu, D. et al. Peptide presentation by bat MHC class I provides new insight into the antiviral immunity of bats. PLoS Biol. 17, e3000436 (2019).
Wynne, J. W. et al. Characterization of the antigen processing machinery and endogenous peptide presentation of a bat MHC class I molecule. J. Immunol. 196, 4468–4476 (2016).
Ng, J. H. et al. Evolution and comparative analysis of the bat MHC-I region. Sci. Rep. 6, 21256 (2016).
Qu, Z. et al. Structure and peptidome of the bat MHC class I molecule reveal a novel mechanism leading to high-affinity peptide binding. J. Immunol. 202, 3493–3506 (2019).
Salmier, A., de Thoisy, B., Crouau-Roy, B., Lacoste, V. & Lavergne, A. Spatial pattern of genetic diversity and selection in the MHC class II DRB of three Neotropical bat species. BMC Evol. Biol. 16, 229 (2016).
Ng, J. H. J., Tachedjian, M., Wang, L. F. & Baker, M. L. Insights into the ancestral organisation of the mammalian MHC class II region from the genome of the pteropid bat, Pteropus alecto. BMC Genomics 18, 388 (2017).
Brook, C. E. et al. Accelerated viral dynamics in bat cell lines, with implications for zoonotic emergence. eLife 9, e48401 (2020).
Guo, H., Callaway, J. B. & Ting, J. P. Inflammasomes: mechanism of action, role in disease, and therapeutics. Nat. Med. 21, 677–687 (2015).
Gamage, A. M. et al. Immunophenotyping monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes in the pteropodid bat Eonycteris spelaea. Sci. Rep. 10, 309 (2020).
Edenborough, K. M. et al. Dendritic cells generated from Mops condylurus, a likely filovirus reservoir host, are susceptible to and activated by Zaire ebolavirus infection. Front. Immunol. 10, 2414 (2019).
Zhou, P. et al. Unlocking bat immunology: establishment of Pteropus alecto bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Sci. Rep. 6, 38597 (2016).
Jebb, D. et al. Six reference-quality genomes reveal evolution of bat adaptations. Nature 583, 578–584 (2020).
Gibbs, E. P. J. The evolution of One Health: a decade of progress and challenges for the future. Vet. Rec. 174, 85–91 (2014).
Teeling, E. C. et al. A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record. Science 307, 580–584 (2005). A comprehensive time-scale analysis of the molecular phylogeny of all extant bats that validated the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera suborders, predicted the common ancestor of bats and suggests that their evolutionary origins were in Laurasia (possibly North America).
McCracken, G. F. in Monitoring Trends in Bat populations of the US and Territories: Problems and Prospects. United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Information and Technology Report, USGS/BRD/ITR-2003–003 (eds O’Shea, T. J. & Bogan, M. A.) 21–30 (US Geological Survey, 2003).
Norris, D. O. & Lopez, K. H. Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates Vol. 1 (Academic, 2010).
Burbank, R. C. & Young, J. Z. Temperature changes and winter sleep of bats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 82, 459–467 (1934).
Dietz, C. & Kiefer, A. Bats of Britain and Europe (Bloomsbury, 2016).
Reeder, W. G. & Cowles, R. B. Aspects of thermoregulation in bats. J. Mamm. 32, 389–403 (1951).
Davis, W. H. & Reite, O. B. Responses of bats from temperate regions to changes in ambient temperature. Biol. Bull. 132, 320–328 (1967).
Ossa, G., Kramer-Schadt, S., Peel, A. J., Scharf, A. K. & Voigt, C. C. The movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, in sub-Saharan Africa assessed by stable isotope ratios. PLoS ONE 7, e45729 (2012).
Morrison, P. & McNab, B. K. Temperature regulation in some Brazilian phyllostomid bats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 21, 207–221 (1967).
Johansen, M. D. et al. Animal and translational models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Mucosal Immunol. 13, 877–891 (2020).
Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat. Microbiol. 5, 536–544 (2020).
Fan, C. et al. Prediction of epidemic spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus driven by spring festival transportation in China: a population-based study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, 1679 (2020).